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How to make wine at home? Tables and instructions

Ladies and Gentlemen,
Winemaking is becoming one of the most popular hobbies around the world. Creating one’s own alcohol compositions is in vogue again. Wines – strong, weak, sweet, dry – and extracts, you can make all of this at home – in your kitchen or cellar.

However, you have to have some knowledge to make good wine. There are more or less comprehensive “how-to” books where you can find such knowledge. Let’s try to make use of the advice contained in this “how-to” book.

Making wine on your own is neither difficult nor time-consuming. You can make wine all year round. In summer you can make it from cherries, currants and gooseberries, in autumn – from apples, pears, blackberries, grapes and wild rose, in winter you can use frozen or dried fruit, pasteurised juices, compotes, honey.

How to start making wine?
Choose healthy and ripe fruit as material for winemaking. Remember to wash them thoroughly. Then make must (juice) from them. Grind the fruit to be used for making the wine, add pectolytic enzyme to the pulp and leave them under cover for several hours. Pecto enzyme is a fully natural product, which accelerates the release of juice from the fruit tissue. It is added to ground fruit in the amount of 1-2 ml/10 kg of fruit. Small, convenient presses can be used to squeeze juice out of the fruit.

Fruit, water, sugar - proportions
Use the table below when preparing the mixture for fermentation, that is, when determining the proportion in which juice, water and sugar are to be combined. The degree of juice dilution depends on the fruit acidity.

The dilution degree must be the greatest for juice from such fruit as currant, raspberry and gooseberry. Remember that juice dilution degree should not exceed 2 l of water per 1 l of juice. Sometimes it is good to combine juice from strongly acidic fruit with juice from less acidic ones, for example, cherries + strawberries, raspberries + apples, white currant + apples. If you make wine from cereals or low-acidity fruit, add citric acid to the fermentation mixture. The acidity of the fermentation mixture can be measured with a simple measuring kit called an acidometer.

The amount of sugar to be added to the fermentation mixture (must) depends - among other things – from the planned strength of the wine. The recommended amounts of sugar for dry, semi-sweet and sweet wines are given in the table on the back. However, remember that the sugar concentration before the fermentation starts should not exceed 22%. When making semi-sweet and sweet wines, sugar is added in three portions: the first one when the fermentation starts and the other two - on its 4th and the 8th day. Add sugar to the fermentation mixture after it is dissolved in water, boiled and cooled down. Saccharometers are available commercially; they can be used not only to measure the sugar concentration in the fermentation mixture, but also to calculate the alcohol concentration in the wine.

Adding yeast, the course of fermentation
You must add winemaking yeast to the fermentation mixture before fermentation starts! These are pure yeast cultures selected especially for winemaking. They bring about a quick fermentation onset, they make it run properly and they help to obtain wine of proper strength, taste and flavour. When choosing the yeast strain, you should take into account the type of fruit used and the kind of wine you want to obtain (strong-weak, sweet-dry).

A medium supplying yeast with nitrogen and phosphorus compounds is also added to the fermentation mixture. We recommend medium containing an addition of vitamin B1. It increases the fermentation activity of yeast and ensures complete fermentation.

Fermentation is effected in a glass balloon or a plastic fermentation tank. The container is closed with a fermentation stopper with a fermentation pipe. After 6-8 weeks of fermentation at the temperature of 20-24°C, the wine is decanted from above the sediment, and sugar is replenished if needed and then its re-fermentation starts which lasts four weeks to several months (depending on the type of material and the amount of sugar). After it is completed, wine is poured into clean, dry bottles, which - closed tightly – are stored in a cool cellar at a temperature of 8-15°C. If the wine is not fully clear before the bottle filling, you can clarify it with Klarowin (bentonite). It allows for removal of excess amounts of proteins, polyphenols and tannins.

The principal equipment for beginner winemakers includes: a glass balloon or a plastic fermentation tank, a stopper for the balloon, a fermentation pipe, winemaking yeast, yeast medium, pectolytic enzyme, a how-to book with simple wine recipes anda rubber pipe for drawing wine.

Advanced winemakers may need the following: a press for squeezing juice out of fruit, an acidometer, a saccharometer, agents for adjusting must acidity, agents for clarifying wine and flavour enhancers, a corker, wine filtering equipment and oak barrels.


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Ferdinard Uwariakachukwu
Ferdinard Uwariakachukwu
Wednesday 08th December 2021

This is really amazing. Nice seeing this post

Monday 27th January 2020

Thank You for basic information about how to make wine. I can start my own one.

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